To manage Projects effectively, they should be divided into different Phases and the smallest possible sub-phases. This iterative process should go up to the level where further division creates chaos rather than helping the project. In database terminology we call this, the “Atomic” level.    






Projects can be managed easily by Phased approach. PMBOK defined and explained processes to manage these sub atomic processes. As per PMBOK 4th edition guide there are 44 processes and grouped in to 5 major Process Groups.5 Process groups are 

  1. Initiation
  2. Planning
  3. Executing
  4. Monitoring & Control
  5. Closing. 

Certain INPUTS are given to the process. Managers use said TOOLS available for that process to produce OUTPUTS.PMBOK guide also defines Knowledge Areas for the Project Managers. Managers will use these skills (Knowledge) to work on given INPUTS using TOOLS to produce OUTPUTS. Those are

  1. Project Integration Management 
  2. Project Scope Management 
  3. Project Cost Management 
  4. Project Time Management 
  5. Project Risk Management 
  6. Project Quality Management 
  7. Project HR Management
  8. Project Communication Management 
  9. Project Procurement Management

Effective Project Management requires knowledge and skills from following 5 areas 

  1. The Project Management Body of Knowledge (5 process groups and 9 knowledge areas)
  2. Application area knowledge, standards, and regulations
  3. Understanding the project environment
  4. General management knowledge and skills
  5. Interpersonal skills.

PMBOK 4th Edition: Process Chart-





Monitorin and Controlling  



4.1 Develop Project Charter   

4.2 Develop Project Management Plan   

 4.3 Direct & Manage Project Execution   

4.4 Monitor & Control Project Work
4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control    

4.6 Close Project or Phase     



5.1 Collect Requirements  5.2 Define Scope
5.3 Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)     


5.4 Verify Scope 
5.5 Control Scope   




 6.1 Define Activities
6.2 Sequence Activities6.3 Estimate Activity Resources  6.4 Estimate Activity Durations  6.5 Develop Schedule  


 6.6 Control Schedule  




 7.1 Estimate Costs7.2 Determine Budget    


 7.3 Control Costs  




 8.1 Plan Quality  

 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance  

 8.3 Perform Quality Control   




 9.1 Develop Human Resources Plan   

 9.2 Acquire Project Team
9.3 Develop Project Team  9.4 Manage Project Team  




 10.1 Identify Stakeholders  

 10.2 Plan Communications  

10.3 Distribute Information  10.4 Manage Stakeholder  Expectations  

10.5 Report Performance     




 11.1 Plan Risk Management11.2 Identify Risks  11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis  11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk  


11.5 Plan Risk Responses  


11.6 Monitor and Control Risks    




 12.1 Plan Procurements  

 12.2 Conduct Procurements  

12.3 Administer Procurements  

 12.4 Close Procurements  


Project documents: PMBOK suggest managers to produce at-least 3 major documents for each project

  1. Project Charter
  2. Project Scope Statement
  3. Project Management Plan. (Notice, MS Project Plan is just one section of the bigger document). It has components to represent knowledge areas listed above
    1. Scope Management Plan
    2. Schedule Management Plan
    3. Cost Management Plan
    4. Quality Management Plan
    5. Staffing Management Plan
    6. Communication Management Plan
    7. Risk Management Plan
    8. Procurement Management Plan